Tuesday, December 24, 2019
A. 1. Free and Appropriate Public Education This mandate states that every child, abled and disabled, must be provided a free and appropriate public education. (Gargiulo, 2006) 2. Least Restrictive Environment This mandate states that if a mainstream classroom is conducive to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s individual needs they must be educated with children without disabilities. Every effort must be made to be inclusive of a child with disabilities in a regular classroom setting alongside children with disabilities. (Gargiulo, 2006) 3. Individualized Education Plan Upon identification of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s disability, an individualized education plan (IEP) must be written. These IEPÃ¢â¬â¢s must be updated or developed annually by a team ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The revision required that assessments of special education students and reporting of assessment of student be handled similarly to general education students. (IDEA Ã¢â¬â¢97, 2003) IDEA 2004 There were several key provisions of the 2004 revision of IDEA. One was the requirement of states to develop a comprehensive, research based method of identifying students in need of special education intervention. It also requires that teachers of core academic subjects must be highly qualified to teach both special education and the core subject they are teaching. There were also several changes made to the IEP process. One of these was allowing, with written parental and school consent, IEP team members to be excused from IEP meetings. Another was requiring, when practical, services and supplemental aids be based on peer-reviewed research. It also removed the requirement of progress reports in special education with the same frequency as general education. It also requires that students who exit special education, whether through graduation or by maximum age, be given a summary of academic and functional performance. (IDEA 2004 Final Regulations Update, 2013) PL 108-446 This revision expanded upon the definition of highly qualified teachers and gave specific requirements and established evaluation methods to determine that a special education teacher is highly qualified in specialShow MoreRelatedSpecial Education Laws And Policies Essay2321 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesare a number of topics that relate to law, policy contemporary issues: Standards Accountability, IDEA, NCLB, ESSA, Advocacy, Inclusion/Collaboration, Positive Behavior Supports, Parental Involvement/Home-school Connection, and Cultural Responsiveness in Special Education. Some individuals familiar with these topics and their stand point on Special Needs Education and others have are clueless. It is imperative to Ã¢â¬Å"be in the knowÃ¢â¬ of Special Education laws and policies. Part of what makes everythingRead MoreSpecial Education Law Analysis2190 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesSpecial Education Law Analysis Special Education Law Analysis Education in the United States has had a reputation of un-uniformity and mistreatment of certain groups especially students with disabilities. However, the recent past has yielded some advancement. Federal legislation has put into place three major laws that have lead to better treatment and higher quality education of students, especially those with disabilities. These laws are the Individuals with Disabilities Education ImprovementRead MoreSpecial Education Law And Policies Essay2027 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesPart 2: Special Education Law and Policies For the state of Indiana as an administrator I need to familiarize myself with the Special Education Rules Title 511 Article 7 Rules 32-49 (Indiana Dept. of Ed, 2014). Article 7 was brought to my attention by my special education coordinator at Laurel School Mrs. Christy Sheehan. This article will help me access the guidelines of Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) and the Individual Education Programs (IEP) along with the instruction from Mrs. SheehanRead MoreFederal Law That Mandates Special Education For Children With Disabilities972 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn 1975, congress enacted the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Kritzer, 2012, p. 53), which was later renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is a federal law that mandates special education for children with disabilities. IDEA requires public schools to provide students with disabilities a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) in the least restrictive environment (LRE). LRE requires school districts to educateRead MoreHistory of Special Education Law1021 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHistory of Special Education Law Grand Canyon University Special Education Litigation and Law SPE-350 Virginia Murray August 11, 2013 History of Special Education Law Throughout the ages, people with disabilities have been hidden away at homes or institutions and were often not educated. This was common practice and as such, when the education system was designed, children with disabilities were not even considered. Then, starting soon after the civil rights movement in the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s, aRead MoreSpecial Education Laws And Regulations Project1468 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDaniel Lardaro Special Education Laws and Regulations Project 9/28/14 Hearing impairments are defined by the federal government as, Ã¢â¬Å"an impairment in hearing, wether permanent or fluctuating that adversely affects a childÃ¢â¬â¢s performance but that is not included under the definition of deafnessÃ¢â¬ (Friend, 2012). Children who are hearing impaired make up a small percentage of the students in the school system, and it is considered to be Ã¢â¬Å"low incidenceÃ¢â¬ impairment. In fact, in 2009, around 1.3 percentRead MoreReflection on My Ability as a Teacher of Special Needs Children1038 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFinal Reflection As I ponder over my personal professional development experiences as an educator the realization of how one has developed over time is personally satisfying. Educating children especially children with special needs is a challenge within its self. As a teacher it is important that this writer makes a positive influence with students. There are going to be certain ideas that one tries to uphold and other discriminations that one will not allow. Everyone has their own beliefs teachersRead MoreEducation And Development Of Special Education949 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessignificant laws that influenced the development of special education in China. Special education schools emerged in the late 19th century with special schools that served those who were blind and deaf (Deng, Poon-McBrayer Farnsworth, 2001, p. 289-290). Ã¢â¬Å"Education for individual with mental retardation or other disabilities was nonexistentÃ¢â¬ (Deng et al., p. 289-290). The foundation of the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republ ic of China established in 1949 is often considered the actual start of special education servicesRead MoreEvolution of Special Needs Essay example993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin the shoes of parents with special needs children. I have two beautiful healthy daughters and to think about being pregnant and expecting to deliver your bundle of joy and when she arrives you find out something is wrong. You can look at her and tell she is different, but you just do not want to accept it. It saddens me to think how any parent would feel in this situation. In my research about the historical evolution of special education I found most special needs children were sent a wayRead More History of Special Education Essay1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHistory of Special Education Introduction Special education has faced many changes during the last century. During this time there have been many opinions on the way students with differences should be taught and treated. This paper will discuss the history of special education during the twentieth century. We will also discuss the laws associated with Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Finally we will discuss the current and future challenges that the laws have on special education
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Monday, December 16, 2019
EUROPEAN BUSINESS SCHOOL LONDON REGENTÃ¢â¬â¢S COLLEGE FALL TERM 2012 Which factors make advertising effective? A marketing literary review based on the Hierarchy of Effects, with a focus on the role of Music in Advertising Report by Onofri S. S00603638 Word Count: 2364 Supervisor Prof. Gordon Bowen Advertising and Media in the Marketing Environment (MKT5A5) 1 Summary Abstract Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Introduction Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 1 2 A Basic Condition Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. We will write a custom essay sample on Which Factors Make Advertising Effective? or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2 The HoE model: three responses to be aroused Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. ) Cognitive Response Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 2) Affective Response Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 3) Conative Response Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. The role of Music in Advertising 1) Cognitive Purpose 2) Affective Purpose 3) Conative Purpose RECOMMENDATIONS Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 2 5 6 7 9 9 9 9 10 Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. CONCLUSIONS Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 10 Appendices Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 11 Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 13 List of References 2 ABSTRACT Ã¢â¬Å"What makes advertising effective? : this Report aims to answer this es sential issue because it is the key for achieving Ã¢â¬âor not- the goals pursued by every company that invests in advertising. The general question has been divided in three areas, depending on the type of consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s response that advertising aims to arouse: cognitive, affective or conative, according to the famous Hierarchy of Effects model proposed by Lavidge and Steiner in 1961. In addition, the report focuses on the role of Music in advertising, with the purpose to highlight how its use can help to achieve efficacy in advertising. Five recommendations are identified through the report. Advertisers should first choose the media mix able to reach as many consumers as possible from the target audience (Ogilvy, 1985). Using appealing creativity (Dahlen et Al, 2010) and increasing the frequency of the message (Pickton and Broderick, 2005) is required to pass successfully through all the selective phases of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ influence process, in order to make them memorize the contents of advertising. Music can be very helpful both for gaining consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention and giving a mnemonic quality to the message (Sutherland, 2008). An effective way to build an emotional link with consumers is referring to common culture (Godin, 1999). Jingles are able to involve consumers, at the point that they can become part of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ cultural background of people (Sutherland, 2008). It is necessary to understand how the purchasing decision is taken by consumers in order to affect their behaviour; the FCB matrix by Vaughn (1986) identifies four types of purchasing process and suggests the quantity and quality of information to provide for each of them in order to have an impact on the decision making process. Since music sets up an entertaining mood, its use appears to be appropriate for the feel products and not for the think products (Arens et Al, 2011). As most of these factors refers to the ability of understanding consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ minds, the report has confirmed that psychology represents a basic support for marketing functions as the making of effective advertising (Foxall et Al, 1998). 3 INTRODUCTION This paper aims to identify the factors which make advertising effective. The research starts stating a basic condition then, since Ã¢â¬Å"efficacy is the ability to bring about the intended resultÃ¢â¬ (Oxford dictionary, 2007), the report analyses which are the marketing objectives pursued by advertising. The Hierarchy of Effects Model proposed by Lavidge and Steiner (1961) is considered pivotal in the communication process. Accordingly, the report uses a tripartite approach in order to better isolate and identify the factors that make advertising successful whether the response sought from consumers is cognitive, affective or conative. The report then operates a specific analysis on the role of Music in advertising, showing how music can be a very useful tool to reach efficacy (Sutherland, 2008) for all the three pursued responses shown previously. Recommendations and Conclusions about the topic complete the analysis. Practical examples chosen among the most famous companies provide evidence to the theoretical analysis; further examples can be found in the appendices. This research has been performed through the method of the literary review: books, papers and articles of famous Marketers and Psychologists are used as sources. A Basic Condition Advertising is undoubtedly a central part of promotion, but compared to the 4 Ps of marketing mix theorized by McCartney (1960), it represents only an aspect of the marketing effort made by the company (Pickton and Broderick, 2005). To reach and maximize the efficacy of advertising, firms should develop a deep know-how of their market, becoming what Llambin (2008) calls market-driven companies. This is achievable only by large investments in market research, in order to know as much as possible about consumers and competitors. As Cowles and Kiecker stated (1998), Ã¢â¬Å"market research is important not only to identify the most profitable target segments, but also to develop a message content that is appealing to them, and to identify the most effective and efficient marketing communications mix elements and mediaÃ¢â¬ . Companies have to focus all their functions to the market: only Market-driven companies will be really able to set the most effective advertising (Llambin, 2008). The HoE model: three responses to be aroused As advertising is a non-personal form of communication (Fill,2009), marketing can be supported by the studies on the communication process. Among them, the hierarchy of effects model proposed by Lavidge and Steiner (1961) states sthat when the ad message reaches the consumer, following the steps of the SMRC communication model (Berlo, 1960), the receiver responds by progressively undertaking three phases: the cognitive phase as first, then the affective and finally the conative. 4 Specifically, consumers will pass through these sequential stages: Awareness, Knowledge, Liking, Preference, Conviction, Purchase. [Figure A] Figure A : Sequential stages of Lavidge and Steiner model (1961) Source: http://www. earnmarketing. net/Hierarchy%20Of%20Effects. jpg Using this tripartite approach, the marketing objectives become more definite and therefore it is possible to identify more precisely the key factors for achieving efficacy. Firms should then set up a specific advertising campaign targeted for each of the three macro-responses they want to arouse in the audience (Lavidge and Steiner, 1961). As a confirmation, even the DAGMA R model (Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results) proposed by R. H. Colley in 1961 suggests that any stage should provide the objective for Marketing Communication independent of the rest (Pickton and Broderick, 2005). The following three Mc DonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s adverts clearly show this differentiated approach. In the first one [Figure B], nothing but the apposition of the two logos (the wi-fi one made by chips) is used: since this ad wants to make the audience learn the service provided, it refers to the cognitive phase. ) Figure B. Source: http://4. bp. blogspot. com/_I9lJuLPsXSs/S0phHAFT6fI/AAAAAAAAJ9s/TR7j4eEnYWQ/s400/Cool+and+ Beautiful+McDonald%E2%80%99s+Advertising+10. jpg 5 In the second one [Figure C], the baby approaching the hamburger evokes feelings of affection for the food offered by the company; an home atmosphere is aroused. Emotional persuasion is the first aim for the affective phase. Figure C. Source: http://www. breastfeedingsymbol. org/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2007/08/mcdonalds. jpg In the third one [Figure D], the invitation to take an action is extremely clear: consumers should have breakfast at Mc DonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s on Mondays, convinced by the free coffee. This ad aims to induce a change in the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour: it refers to the conative phase. Figure D. Source: http://www. cdonaldsstl. com/images/FreeCoffeeMondays-graphic. jpg The main limit of HoE is its rigidity: consumers do not always undertake these steps sequentially, because of their irrationality; however, the existence of these three kinds of responses is widely accepted also among the critics (Barry and Howard, 1990). Accordingly, it is possible to reformulate the central question in a more detailed way: which elements are necessary in advertising, in order to improve the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in brand awareness (1), in the affective relationship with the consumers (2), and in the sales (3)? 6 1 Ã¢â¬â Cognitive response The goal of these campaigns is to ensure that customers are properly aware of the brand; making clear the brand positioning is the main aim (Egan, 2007). Reach is the first key factor. Pelsmacker (2007) defines it as Ã¢â¬Å"the number or percentage of people who are expected to be exposed to the advertiserÃ¢â¬â¢s message during a specified periodÃ¢â¬ . Reach plays the either/or role in the SMRC process: if the company does not reach the consumers, no response can be aroused. Therefore, the choice of the most appropriate media mix to reach the target segments becomes crucial for the success of the advertising campaign (Ogilvy, 1985). According to the selective influence process theories, people play a very active role as receivers in the communication process (Karlz and Lazarsfeld, 1955). There are unconscious and social intervening variables which affect the final internalization of the message. Since only the memorized information is able to affect the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviours the ability to pass through the selective phases of the consumer influence process is the second key factor (Karlz and Lazarsfeld, 1955). To win the receiverÃ¢â¬â¢s attention, it is required to overtake what Wundt (1896) alls the absolute threshold, that is the minimum psychic intensity an individual needs for reacting to a stimulus. For this reason, the effort to provide appealing creativity to the advert gains great importance (Dahlen et Al, 2010); moreover, since the traditional media are today overcrowded (Levinson, 2007), creativity can make adverts emerge to the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ eyes. A clear example can be represented by the winner of the Ã¢â¬Å"Best Use of Blu Tac in a Shop Window Postcard SpaceÃ¢â¬ category in the Chip Shop Awards 2012. Clearasil posted a completely and intensely white postcard: impossible not to see. Figure E. Source: http://www. chipshopawards. com/ Clearasil is a brand of beauty products against skin imperfections (www. clearasil. co. uk) Use of creativity can also have negative impacts: it is difficult to define the line between great effect and great scandal (Godin, 1999). [see Appendix I] 7 In choosing how often to transmit the advertising message, psychology supports marketing once again (Foxall et Al, 1998). I. V. Pavlov developed the notion of Ã¢â¬Å"conditioned reflexÃ¢â¬ (1927): opposed to the innate reflex it is a learned reaction to a positive or negative stimulus. In marketing, this means that the repetition of a message will increase its understanding; thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why frequency plays a key role. Frequency Ã¢â¬Å"measures the number of times, on average, that a member of the target audience is exposed to a message or, more accurately, to the mediaÃ¢â¬ (Pickton and Broderick, 2005). Increasing the frequency helps making the advertise effective but, according to the Curve of Wundt (1896), if the intensity of the stimulus exceeds a certain limit it is even possible to arouse anxiety, nervousness and irritation in the receivers. Ã¢â¬â Affective response Here, the main goal is to create an affective link with consumers, in order to persuade them appreciating the brand and making a preference for it (Fill, 2009). The more the content of a message is associated to paradigmatic knowledge, the more immediate and simple is its decoding by the receiver (Grandori, 1999): thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why advertising should carry associations recalling to the comm on culture to be effective in building an emotional link with the audience (Godin, 1999). Among all the cultural aspects, political studies have shown that the more compelling ones are common roots ; common habits ; famous figures (Gabrielsen, 2010). The use of cultural associations can be clearly found in ChryslerÃ¢â¬â¢s spot for the launch of the new 200 model, shown during the 2011 edition of Super Bowl. The core of the message highlights the origin of the machine, manufactured in Detroit: Ã¢â¬Å" ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s who we are. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s our story. (Ã¢â¬ ¦) Because when it comes to luxury, itÃ¢â¬â¢s as much about where itÃ¢â¬â¢s from, as who itÃ¢â¬â¢s for. Now weÃ¢â¬â¢re from America, but this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t New York City, or the Windy city. Ã¢â¬ ¦) This is the Motor city. And this is what we do. The new Chrysler 200 has arrived. Imported from Detroit. Ã¢â¬ [see Appendix II] Casting famous figures (VIP) as testimonial and being present at the big events widely enjoyed and cherished by people (as the recent Olympics in London 2012) are other effective ways t o involve the audience (Arens et Al, 2011) [see Appendix III and IV] Thanks to these associations, every time that consumers get in touch with the reminded cultural aspect, they will also remember the linked brand (Godin, 1999). see Appendix V] This cultural approach shows some limits. Since culture is a sphere of meanings related to the past, the new products which aim to highlight innovation as their core quality canÃ¢â¬â¢t take the best benefits from cultural associations (Ogilvy, 1985). Moreover, relying on VIP means accepting the risk of linking to them the name of the brand also when something negative is referred to them (Arens et Al, 2011). [see Appendix VI] 8 3 Ã¢â¬â Conative response In order to affect consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviours with advertising, it is necessary to understand how their decision making process works. The model developed by Vaughn for Foote Cone and Belding in 1980, known as the FCB matrix, considers it as driven by two variables: the level of involvement (high-low) and the type of approach to the purchase (rational-emotional). (McWilliam, 1997; Vaughn, 1980 and 1986). The result is the identification of 4 macro-type of purchasing process, each one requiring different kinds of information to be affected: differences are both in quantity Ã¢â¬â high and detailed or low and summarizedÃ¢â¬â and quality Ã¢â¬âemotional or rational Ã¢â¬â of information. Vaughn, 1986). In Figure F, some exemplar products are placed in the 4 quadrants of the FCB matrix. Figure F. Source: Vaugh, 1980 Therefore, advertising can be effective only if it provides the consumers with the kind of information they look for in their decision making process, this one being identified by the quadrant the product is placed in. (Vaughn, 1986). The analysis of 4 different decision making processes is now addr essed, referring to the model of Vaughn (1986): 1. High involvement / rational. People look for the real facts, they need to gain the confidence they are doing the right choice (e. g. Mortgage). The way to be effective is to highlight all the product competitive benefits as well as the company know-how, and to provide the consumers with positive feedbacks . [Figure G] Figure G. Source: http://www. okeefeestateagents. com/_microsites/paul_okeefe/ docs/images/homepage/rightColAdvert/need-a-mortgage. jpg 9 2. High involvement / emotional. Consumers want to learn about and feel the experience (e. g. Holidays). Companies should provide content rich media with compelling personal feedbacks, music and everything else able to make the consumers taste the experience. [Figure H] Figure H. Source: www. adcracker. com 3. Low involvement / rational. People usually buy by habit (e. g. toothpaste). Underlining the incentives to change habits as sale coupons can be effective. [Figure I] Figure I. www. cuckooforcoupondeals. com Source: 4. Low involvement / emotional. People often looks for sensory or psychological gratification (e. g. Movies). Showing sensory rich imagery can be successful. [Figure J] Figure J. Source: http://www. filmjabber. com/movie-blog/wpcontent/uploads/2007/11/the-eye-poster. jpg The limit of the FCB matrix is the difficulty to plot the product in the right quadrant, because of the inconsistencies between consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ and companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions of it (Dahlen et Al, 2010). Moreover, as marketing environment is rapidly changing, products and services can fast move from one coordinate to another in the brand image of consumers (Fill, 2009). 0 The Role of Music in Advertising Music can be a very useful tool to reach efficacy in advertising, whether the aim is to arouse a cognitive, affective or conative response in the consumers (Sutherland, 2008). The analysis aims to show how the use of music can aid or hinder the effective factors identified in the general part. 1. COGNITIVE PURPOSE Music can help to win consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention: reproducing a song well-known among the target audience o r a catchy rhythm greatly helps to get its attentions (Sutherland, 2008). The use of creativity in music can be found in the production of jingles, where companies set their own words to Music. Ã¢â¬Å"Jingles are among the best Ã¢â¬âand worstÃ¢â¬â ad messages produced. Done well, they can bring enormous success, well beyond the non-musical commercial. Done poorly, they can waste the advertising budget and annoy audiences beyond beliefÃ¢â¬ (Arens et Al, 2011). [see Appendix VII] Moreover, what Sutherland (2008) calls the three Rs Ã¢â¬â rhyme, rhythm and repetition Ã¢â¬â give words a mnemonic quality, making the message more catchy and enduring in memory. 2. AFFECTIVE PURPOSE Research has shown that the positive mood created by music makes consumers more receptive to an ad message (Belch and Belch, 2009). When words are set to the music, a desire for repetition can be created: thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why jingles are able to involve consumers, at the point that they can become themselves part of the cultural background of people (Sutherland, 2008). A chart of the Ã¢â¬Å"top 10 jingles of the centuryÃ¢â¬ has been made, according to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s preferences: a prove of the attachment consumers have towards them (Belch and Belch, 2009). Figure K. Source: Belch and Belch, 2009 The case of Oscar MayerÃ¢â¬â¢s spots clearly shows the emotional power of jingles in advertising. [see Appendix VIII] Jingles are used less frequently today, replaced by an increasing use of current or classic pop songs: in the age of the technologic way to live music companies must be careful not to appear oldfashionable while using jingles (Belch and Belch, 2009). 3. CONATIVE PURPOSE Music can also affect the way people behave, but since it better vehicles an emotional message, it seems to be effective especially -if not only- with the Ã¢â¬Å"feel productsÃ¢â¬ (Sutherland, 2008). A great example of how music can be focused on action is the jingle created by the pizza chain Ã¢â¬Å"Pizza, PizzaÃ¢â¬ in Toronto: the company put its phone number in the lyrics, so that Toronto residents could memorize it easily. [see Appendix IX] On the other hand, music causes what Sutherland (2008) calls the Ã¢â¬Å"wash-over effectÃ¢â¬ : when we listen to lyrics, we process the message as an experience that we can enjoy or not rather than 11 judging the reliability of its meaning. The entertaining mood set up by music is inappropriate when consumers want to focus on the rational information, as for Ã¢â¬Å"think productsÃ¢â¬ (Arens et Al, 2011). As the analysis of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ responses to music in advertising carried by Oakes (2007) shows, reaching a congruity between music and advertising in mood, genre, image and tempo contributes to the efficacy of an advertisement by enhancing recall, brand attitude, affective response and purchase intention. Since the negotiation of the license rights often needs large sums, marketers should carefully decide if and in which way music can be coherent with the marketing campaign, in order to avoid an expensive disorientation of consumers(Belch and Belch, 2009). RECOMMENDATIONS As shown through the report, advertisers should first ascertain to find the media mix that will maximize the reach of the audience (Ogilvy, 1985). Passing successfully through all the selective phases of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ influence process is necessary to make them memorize a message (Karlz and Lazarsfeld, 1955). Concretely, this can be achieved by using appealing creativity (Dahlen et Al, 2010) and by increasing the frequency of the message (Pickton and Broderick, 2005). The use of Music can be very effective both for winning consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention and adding a mnemonic quality to the message (Sutherland, 2008). When aiming to build an emotional link with consumers, a successful choice is including associations recalling to common culture in the message sent to consumers (Gabrielsen, 2010). Jingles can be such able to involve consumers, that they can become themselves part of the cultural background of people (Sutherland, 2008). To effectively affect consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviours, advertisers must understand how the purchasing decision for their products is taken by consumers; the FCB matrix by Vaughn (1986) suggest the quantity and quality of information to provide for each of the 4 types of purchasing process identified by crossing the level of involvement (high or low) and the kind of approach (emotional or rational). Music can be effective for feel products, but not for think products, since it sets up an entertaining mood inappropriate for rational decisions (Arens et Al, 2011). The overall recommendation for companies is to consider advertising as a process that involves the entire business as connected with it by a close cause-effect relationship: when an advert is not effective, it can be the symptom that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s something wrong in the marketing decision making process, or it can be the cause leading to future problems in the relationship with the market (Llambin, 2008). CONCLUSIONS It has been shown that a tripartite approach to the central question Ã¢â¬Å"which factors can make advertising effective? is able to deeply analyse the issue and to define an accurate answer. Since all the factors except the maximisation of Reach refer to the ability of reading consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ minds, the report has confirmed how psychology can greatly support marketing functions and, specifically, making advertising effective (Foxall et Al, 1998). ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why Market-driven companies, which have developed a deep knowledge of their consumers as a result of large i nvestments in market research, have the concrete possibility to apply these factors in the most effective way possible (Llambin, 2008). 2 APPENDICES I. As an example, the historical testimonial used by Danish Frisbee Sports Union for the 2012 campaign will be definitely able to catch consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention, but it can reasonably arouse perplexity and disgust in a high number of people. Source: http://www. chipshopawards. com/ II. Full text of the spot: Narrator : I got a question for you. What does this city know about luxury, hm? What does a town thatÃ¢â¬â¢s been to hell and back know about the finer things in life? Well IÃ¢â¬â¢ll tell you. More than most. You see, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the hottest fires that make the hardest steel. Add hard work and conviction. And a know how that runs generations deep in every last one of us. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s who we are. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s our story. Now itÃ¢â¬â¢s probably not the one youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been reading in the papers. The one being written by folks who have never even been here. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t know what weÃ¢â¬â¢re capable of. Because when it comes to luxury, itÃ¢â¬â¢s as much about where itÃ¢â¬â¢s from as who itÃ¢â¬â¢s for. Now weÃ¢â¬â¢re from America Ã¢â¬â but this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t New York City, or the Windy City, or Sin City, and weÃ¢â¬â¢re certainly no oneÃ¢â¬â¢s Emerald City. Eminem: This is the motor city Ã¢â¬â and this is what we do. Written text: The new Chrysler 300 has arrived. Imported from Detroit Source: http://www. youtube. com/watch? feature=player_embeddedv=V0HLIvtJRAI III. VIP testimonials can provide good advantages: a VIP well known among the target audience can better win consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention; it allows to make the advertising message more personal, exploiting the VIPÃ¢â¬â¢s familiarity with the consumers ; people will associate the appreciated qualities of the VIP to the product (Arens et Al, 2011). 13 Nestle chose to set a totally VIP-focused campaign to promote Nespresso brand: George Clooney has being appeared in every adverts of the famous espresso machine, with the aim to take advantages from his style and world-wide popularity. Source of Image: http://www. generation-flux. com/images/Nespresso-site. jpg IV. A great example of how an emotional link can be built by focusing advertising on current events widely enjoyed and cherished by people is represented by the marketing campaigns of PG, created to promote their laundry products Ariel in UK and Tide in USA during the Olympics of London 2012. The compelling references on the athletic competition were present in both the spots: Ã¢â¬Å" Before the Gold, Silver, and Bronze, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the red, white and blue. At the Olympic Games, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not the color you go home with that matters, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the colors you came in. When colors mean this much, trust them to Ariel (UK)/ Tide (USA). Ã¢â¬ The meaning of the final sentence Ã¢â¬Å"Proud keeper of Our CountryÃ¢â¬â¢s ColoursÃ¢â¬ was certainly influenced by the images of the athletes shown in the video: for Ariel, a high number of British participants ; for Tide, almost only American players. Sources: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=DoF9DROHYnU Tide for USA; http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=Jipn-MGg0DA Ariel for UK. V. A great example of the power of cultural associations can be found in politics. The ex-Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi, considered the biggest innovator in the Italian political marketing Ã¢â¬â in a negative or positive way depending on the political conviction Ã¢â¬â (Palmieri, 2012), named his first party Ã¢â¬Å"Forza ItaliaÃ¢â¬ (1994), that is the same slogan used by Italian people as an incitement for the national football team. The result was a Ã¢â¬Å"widespread embarrassmentÃ¢â¬ (ibidem) when people not voting for Berlusconi wanted to support the football team, but they had to shout the name of his party: they could not manage not to think about this political association. VI. Cirio is an Italian company founded in 1856 specialized in canned food, especially in tomato paste. (www. cirio. co. uk) Cirio managers werenÃ¢â¬â¢t happy to learn that their testimonial Gerard Depardieu was founded drunk and misbehaving on a plane just two weeks later the advertising campaign was launched. The spot is accessible here: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=ReGPNs-HfH0 The episode reported: http://www. telegraph. co. uk/news/celebritynews/8706992/GerardDepardieu-accused-of-urinating-on-floor-of-plane. html VII. As an example, in the 1970s Coca-Cola was so successful with its jingle Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to buy the world a CokeÃ¢â¬ that it was then extended and released to become an international chart hit called Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to Teach the World to SingÃ¢â¬ (Sutherland, 2008). VIII. Oscar Mayer is a brand owned by Kraft Foods. At the end of last century the company held local auditions in search of American children to continue the 30-year tradition of singing the catchy Ã¢â¬Å"bolognaÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"wienerÃ¢â¬ jingles: they were such known that Oscar Mayer decided to be selfreferential in order to best cultivate the relationship with the consumers. Thompson, S. 1997. Ã¢â¬Å"Promotions: Nostalgia BologneseÃ¢â¬ , Brandweek, April 14, 1997 Original videos are available here: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=rmPRHJd3uHI (Bologna); http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=aNddW2xmZp8feature=related (Wieners) IX. The example and the text of the jingle are reported in Sutherland (2008, p 122): Ã¢â¬Å"nine-sixseven, eleven eleven / phone Pizza Pizza, hey hey hey! Ã¢â¬ 14 List of References BOOKS Llambin, J. J. , 2008. Market-driven management, Marketing strategico e operativo 5th ed. Milano: Mc Graw Hill. Oxford, 2007. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on historical principles. Oxford: Oxford University Press Berlo, D. K. , 1960. The process of communication : an introduction to theory and practice. New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Egan, J. , 2007. Marketing Communications. South Western Cengage Learning. De Pelsmacker, P. , Geuens, M. and Van den Bergh, J. , 2007. Marketing Communications: a European Perspective, 3rd edition. Harlow: Financial Time Prentice Hall. Wundt, W. , 1896. Compendium of Psychology. Consulted in the 3rd Italian translation by Agliardi L. , 2004. Compendio di psicologia. E-book accessible at: http://www. liberliber. it/mediateca/libri/w/wundt/compendio_di_psicologia/pdf/compendi_p. pdf Katz, E. and Lazarsfeld, P. F, 1955. Personal influence : the part played by people in the flow of mass communications. London : Transaction (ed. 2006). Levinson, Jay Conrad; Levinson, Jeannie; Levinson, How to cite Which Factors Make Advertising Effective?, Essay examples
Posted by Unknown at 11:38 AM
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question: Write a report critically analysing how the strategy of merger and acquisition is used in the energy sector during the oil price drop. Answer: Introduction The entire gas and oil industry was in a complete shock when everyone has to face the cost and cash flows pressures. The 18-month long collapse of oil prices have led to mergers and acquisitions from all the four sectors that is upstream, oilfield, midstream and downstream (England and Slaughter 2016). Moreover, the impact in oil drop has not only affected the viability of short term but also influenced the investments and the long-term objectives. The wave to reshape the energy industry when oil prices hit the energy sector led to one response that is mergers and acquisitions. This strategy was widely accepted to bring stability while improving the situations of the companies so that they could access the new markets (Joshi and Desai 2015).This research highlights the sharp decline in oil prices in the past years and the help that had been provided by mergers and acquisitions to the small producers to enable them to earn profit in the external as well as the internal environment. Th e oil price volatility constitutes to be harmful as it results in fluctuations in output growth leading to uncertainty for future prices. The study will analyze the oil drop and the effectiveness of the mergers and acquisition in different companies to analyze the process while redefining the sector. Merger and Acquisition in 2014-2016 during Oil Drop The oil drop in 2014 has been from the peak price of 115 US billion dollars per barrel in June 2014 to approximately 50 US billion dollars per barrel in 2015. The reduction in prices of oil added with the continued low natural gas prices has declined the number of operations in rigs affecting the drilling commitments to more than 250,000 professionals (Krauss 2016). On the other hand, when we consider according to the sectors then the downstream had been benefited while widening the refining margins for falling feedstock rapidly. The midterm sector had been providing cash flows based on the pipeline transportation fees whereas the prospects seemed to have slow down the upstream sector. Many companies resorted to mergers and acquisition strategies because companies with low economic outlook could not achieve the growth strategy. However, this strategy was adopted by the organizations to strengthen the technical and financial base that could reduce the cost structures. Conversely, mer gers were for that company where the corporations combined their share of resources with a common objective whereas acquisition was done for the small corporations where the organization took a legal subsidiary or the selected assets of the firms. This strategy adopted yielded benefit to give wealth maximization to the shareholders (Joshi and Desai 2015). However, adopting this strategy lowered the pressure on both the buyers and the sellers. The financial investors have been significant in maintain a consistent presence in the energy value chain such that the investors are mainly focused on establishing their upstream with larger capital needs or complex assets. Although, there has been growth in mergers and acquisitions since 2015 and the certain examples that deals with more complex investments include companies like Hutchison Whampoas that acquired a stake in Husky Energy for 2 billion dollars followed by Macquaries Stake Brookfield and Asset Management hold a stake for 2.1 bill ion dollars in Apache Energy (Atkearney 2016). Moreover, the largest merger deal between BP and Royal Dutch Shell cannot be fruitful for the oil drop scenario because the deal and the operations are fiendishly complex and regulated (Crooks 2014). Mergers and Acquisitions Outlook for 2015 The industry oil and gas experienced a wave of mergers and acquisitions providing a decisive action towards the oil prices stabilization. It started with notable acquisition of 82 billion dollars of BG Group by Royal Dutch Shell. In the first quarter, here were a total of 100 million dollars value mergers across 40 deals. Among the non-oil and gas entities, most deals were focused downstream including Qatars 5 billion dollars acquisition in Shandong Dongming Petrochemical as well as SamrukKazyna of a stake of 49% and JSCs 4.7 billion dollars investment in KMG Kashagan BV with a stake of 50% (England and Slaughter 2016).However, the opportunistic as well as consolidated acquisitions was required to provide a competitive edge that not only restructured to emerge stronger than before but also meet challenges, specifications on time. Conversely, the small service oil companies became targets for creative financing so that that valuation gap could be structured with considered limitations on the viability. This was possible through by using derivative instruments to create options for stable cash regarding fees as well as forward discounting. Mergers and Acquisitions Outlook for 2016 The consistent scenario in reduction in oil prices ensured liquidity to be one of the imperative factors such that in early 2015, Exxon, Chevron, BP and Total issued a debt of worth 31 billion dollars in raising cash through secondary equity. However, to meet the ongoing deal structures of the organization, there had been job cuts in the international oil companies that comprised of 7,000 job cuts by BP, creating headcount reductions as a measure of cost reductions (Atkearney 2016). Hence, the oil companies had to use more transformative measures like competitiveness of high-grade portfolios. BP, Chevron and Shell announced 45 billion dollars sales over the next few years focusing on sustainable assets to meet the reduction in oil prices. Models The model that can be used for external environment is PESTEL whereas the model that can well describe the internal factors are the Porters Five Forces. However, the strategy for market development based on mergers and acquisitions can be studied using Porters Generic Strategies. PESTEL (External Factors)The external factors highlight the business environment for the external environment. The strategic analytical techniques that can be used to evaluate the impact of external factors on the adoption of mergers and acquisition during the oil drop is PESTEL. PESTEL Tool Political FactorsThe political events that had led to decrease in oil drop was majorly because of the war or rebellion that had struck the oil producers and prevented to produce or sell oil such that the supply of oil reduced. The side effects are known to be as resource curse because of the geopolitical politics and political instability. Moreover, the changes in the oil production is due to the collapse of oil prices that remain to be stagnant since 2014 levels (Pitatzis 2016). However, the slumping down of global demand and a glut of global supply is still making smaller or larger companies struggling to cope with the energy sectors doldrums. Politically, all the global companies as if Shell plunged sold extra 10 billion dollars assets to plunge 87% of profits. Halliburton and Baker Hughes abandoned its tie up of 28 billion dollars. On the other hand, to meet the cost structures in the political environment, BP had done 1 billion dollar cuts including job cut as a response to oil prices. Comparatively, though BP has strategic partner Statoil that agreed to sell a portion to for 740 million dollars (Atkearney 2016). Economic FactorsThe economic environment has equally in a turmoil after the drop in oil prices from 115 US billion dollars per barrel to 35 US billion dollars per barrel at the end of February 2016 (Rogoff 2016). The oil sector was not able to hold anymore of spending of projects as the supply exceeded the demand (Austin 2016). The following diagram below can explain the latest imbalance in supply and demand. Moreover, the differences in prices has been prevalent due to the global economic crisis. Although, the world economies had been recovering from the crisis but the extraction from the unconventional and off shore gas fields led to high cost of extraction amongst the reserves. The other reasons that added to these economic factors were over mounting of public and private debt in OECD countries and shadow banking system in emerging economies (Pitatzis 2016). Social FactorsThe socio-cultural factors that played a role in the reduction of oil prices includes migration, demography, income, culture, religion views on issue. The social trends that significantly affected the oil and industry are the reduction in the usage of fossil fuels like oil sands, shale gas and coal and opting for alternative sources of energy. The loss in jobs during the aftermath of crisis and in the period of 2015-2016 resulted in negative attitude of the people towards larger companies (Austin 2016). Technological FactorsThe technological factors that laid the foundation for the oil drop are the risks that can be associated with the access to rare resources that enabled deep-water drilling in cash rich industries. Such operations have not only increased the danger but also have provided barriers in upgrading to a new technology (Pitatzis 2016). The innovation market may pose risk from exploration leading to software innovation from the unlevelled g round that may lead to extreme costs in the oil and gas industry. Environmental FactorsThe medium effects of low oil prices depend on the environmental sustainability of biofuels causing unavoidable competition in food production and providing restricted greenhouse gas benefits. Moreover, the energy prices in 2013, have been straining public finances. As a result, there are countries that redirect pollution to environment and public health as most of them lack carbon prices that could reinforce structural change to lower carbon economy. Moreover, the basic environmental reason that led to the low oil price is the nuclear incident that took place in Fukushima Japan and the Hurricane Karl because of which various wells had been shut down in Mexican Gulf (Krauss 2016). Legal FactorsThe legal factors that briefly describe the reduction in oil prices is due to the certain taxes and tariffs in the notable capital and labor that has not only discouraged the economic activity but also has also worsen the future economic growth. On the other hand, the reduced subsidies had been undertaken to balance budgets in the economies. However, the transitioning to a competitive workforce has not only made the oil producing countries one of the least productive countries but also entailed the freedom to enterprise their families. OECD receives the only benefit as lower energy prices create an opportunity to reduce fossil fuel subsidies while providing wide range of economic benefits like tax breaks, opening up political space for reforms, etc. (Baffes et al.2016)Porters Five Forces (Internal Factors)The internal factors can be analyzed based on the microenvironment of the various organization that had been driven by the cause and effect of the reduction in oil prices.New Potential Entrants The new entrants will have benefit to enter in the market in the form of mergers and acquisition that will lead to potential lucrative markets, as there would be government backing for drill ing. Moreover, Cuadrillas position, as one of the organizational in the UK oils and gas sector will improve. On the other hand, shale gas market will be uplifted.Industrial Rivalry and Competitiveness The industry rivalry and competitiveness is low because the growth of the organization has fallen to a level where market share can be taken from other firms based on mergers and acquisition. However, as there is strong market for oil the standardization could be maintained.Power of Buyers The organization and OPEC hold a large market for oil and gas buyers stating that the power of buyers will be high and the market demand will rise, as there storage for airlines and haulage will increase.Power of Suppliers The power of supplies will be considered medium, as there will be many oilfields from where the oil extraction could be done. However, due to extraction in unconventional farms, the competition might exist between Baker Hughes and Schlumberger (Evans, Nyquist and Yanosek 2016).T hreat of Substitutes The threat of substitutes will be higher for oil and gas industry because the only substitute available is renewable energies that comprises of biomass, solar, wind, geothermal and water. Although, the demand for renewable will be lower in comparison with lower prices but the effectiveness, viability and efficiency will be enable to replace traditional fossil fuels to an extent keeping in mind the environmental concerns (Klevns, Stern and Frejova 2016).Porters Generic Strategies According to the Porters Generic Strategies, the economies as well as companies after mergers and acquisitions have adopted the portfolio expansion strategies in the oil and gas industry. The onshore producer have been seeking operations by operating on the unconventional oilfields for shale oil basins. Although, with diversification in the oil and gas industry they are implying cost leadership strategy so that there could be economies of scale and scope after the mergers and acquisitio n and the organization can make some profit. However, the companies have a first mover advantage in both cost leadership and diversification strategy through mergers and acquisitions. Conversely, there is a need to climb the learning curve in the process to enable players to low cost deals that could be prove to be most valuable in the volatile oil price world. Challenges and Benefits of Mergers and Acquisitions According to the merger and acquisition strategy, the organizations will benefit from the deal as the International Oil Companies (IOCs) will survive the intense cost structures but this strategic alliance can drive cost synergies to some extent. Secondly, mergers and acquisition will help the company with healthy balance sheets to get opportunities on advantage account while others will define strategies to survive. Thirdly, the mergers will help the distressed companies to capitalize through mergers and acquisitions such as Schlumbergers acquisition of Cameron that expanded on offerings to complete drilling to production by joining in-house basin technology with Camerons support and external technologies. On the other hand, oil service companies will be hitting hard for consolidation. Moreover, mergers will be beneficial in reshaping competitive landscape as well (Wilson and Turaga 2016).The challenges that the IOCs will be based on the following factors. Firstly, in terms of faile d mergers there would be due on overpayments with the expectation to expand. Secondly, the IOCs might face integration issues like Halliburton Hughes merger failed due to the scrutiny based on European and US regulators on the overlapping business segments, as it did not succeed in selling businesses due to low prices. Thirdly, the selection of the targets and motives needs to be in need of the financial motives and needs (Joshi and Desai 2015). Lastly, the three levels that could affect the strategic alliance are the recovery in oil prices, policy, tax, regulatory changes and availability of capital (Slaughter and Yee 2016). Conclusion To conclude, it can be said that although the period of 2014-2016 faced drop in oil prices but the only way the bigger companies could survive was by selling their assets and small companies getting into mergers. However, many mergers and acquisitions took place in the International Oil Companies (IOCs). Moreover, the mergers and acquisitions entered in the market to create win-win situation but depending on the scenario from a longer perspective it was done to cut costs, cope up with the competition and lead to growth in the business environment. References Atkearney. 2016. Mergers and Acquisitions in Oil and Gas. Available at: https://www.atkearney.es/documents/3900187/7057723/Mergers+and+Acquisitions+in+Oil+and+Gas+2016+PRINT(25abril).pdf/f2fbfab7-a973-4e40-8ed4-17a59720fa7d [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016].Austin, S. 2016. Six reasons why oil prices reached new 2016 highs. Oil-price.net. Available at: https://www.oil-price.net/en/articles/six-reasons-why-oil-prices-reached-new-highs.php [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016].Baffes, J., Kose, A., Ohnsorge, F. and Stocker, M. 2016. The Great Plunge in Oil Prices: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Responses. worldbank.org. Available at: https://www.worldbank.org/content/dam/Worldbank/Research/PRN01_Mar2015_Oil_Prices.pdf [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016].BBC News. 2016. BP shares plunge as profits halve - BBC News. Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-35469380 [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016].Crooks, E. 2014. Oil price slide sets the stage for MA - FT.com. Financial Times. Available at: https://next.ft.com/content/626dea3 6-3c06-11e4-96b8-00144feabdc0 [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016].England, J. and Slaughter, A. 2016. Oil and Gas Merger and Acquisition Report. Deloitte Center for Energy Solutions. Available at: https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/ru/Documents/energy-resources/er-og-ma-year-end-2015-repor.pdf [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016].Evans, B., Nyquist, S. and Yanosek, K. 2016. Mergers in a low-oil-price environment: Proceed with caution. McKinsey Company. Available at: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/oil-and-gas/our-insights/mergers-in-a-low-oil-price-environment-proceed-with-caution [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016].Griffin, R.W. 2013. Fundamentals of management. Cengage Learning.Joshi, N. and Desai, J. 2015. A Study of Mergers Acquisitions in Aviation Industry in India and Their Impact on the Operating Performance and Shareholder Wealth. Journal of Business Management and Economics.Klevns, P., Stern, N. and Frejova, J. 2016. Oil Prices and New Climate Economy. newclimateeconomy.report. Available at: htt ps://newclimateeconomy.report/2015/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Oil-prices-and-the-New-Climate-Economy.pdf [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016].Krauss, C. 2016. Oil Prices: Whats Behind the Drop? Simple Economics. Nytimes.com. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/business/energy-environment/oil-prices.html?_r=0 [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016].Pitatzis, A. 2016. PEST Analysis for Global Oil and Gas Companies Operations. linkedin.com. Available at: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/pest-analysis-global-oil-gas-companies-operations-athanasios-pitatzis [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016].Rogoff, K. 2016. Whats behind the drop in oil prices? World Economic Forum. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/03/what-s-behind-the-drop-in-oil-prices/ [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016].Rothaermel, F.T. 2015. Strategic management. McGraw-Hill.Russell, K. 2016. How Oil Prices Are Falling Again, Explained in Four Charts. Nytimes.com. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/business/energy-environment/oil-pric e-supply-demand-imblance.html [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016].Slaughter, A. and Yee, M. 2016. Oil and gas mergers and acquisitions report: Year-end 2015 | Deloitte US | Energy Resources. Deloitte United States. Available at: https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/pages/energy-and-resources/articles/oil-and-gas-mergers-and-acquisitions-report-year-end.html [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016].Tassabehji, R. and Isherwood, A. 2014. Management use of strategic tools for innovating during turbulent times. Strategic Change, 23(1Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã 2), pp.63-80.Wilson, T. and Turaga, U. 2016. What Does the Failure of the HAL BHI Merger Mean for MA in Oilfield Services?. Adi-analytics.com. Available at: https://adi-analytics.com/2016/05/11/what-does-the-failure-of-the-hal-bhi-merger-mean-for-ma-in-oilfield-services/ [Accessed 2 Aug. 2016].
Posted by Unknown at 8:21 AM
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Compares films depictions of West, values, gunfighting, 19th Cent. town life, directors messages styles. My Darling Clementine ( John Ford ) High Noon ( Fred Zinnemann ) John Fords My Darling Clementine (1946) includes historical characters and historical events, while Fred Zinnemanns High Noon (1952) is more a generic Western with an interesting slant on the history of the time in which the film was made. At heart, both films are about a clash between good and evil that ends with a gunfight in the street, with the forces of law against the representatives of disorder. While this may be a timeless battle repeated endlessly in filmsnot only Westerns, but certainly in the Western genre time and time againhow this battle is treated in the two films shows a very different view of the social order, of the role of the hero, and of the meaning of the battle itself. Ford takes a much more traditional view of his hero, Wyatt Earp, and he treats that character in the heroic mold even though the historical character and his brothers were not as admirable as
Posted by Unknown at 8:03 PM
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Voiced vs. Voiceless Consonants Phoneticists (who study the sound of the human voice) divide consonants into two types: voiced and voiceless. Voiced consonants require the use of the vocal cords to produce their signature sounds; voiceless consonants do not. Both types use the breath, lips, teeth, and upper palate to further modify speech. This guide presents the differences between voiced and voiceless consonants and gives you some tips for using them. ThoughtCo / Jaime Knoth Voiced Consonants Your vocal cords, which are actually mucous membranes, stretch across the larynx at the back of the throat. By tightening and relaxing as you speak, the vocal cords modulate the flow of breath expelled from the lungs. An easy way to determine whether a consonant is voiced or not is to place a finger on your throat. As you pronounce a letter, feel the vibration of your vocal cords. If you feel a vibration the consonant is a voiced one. These are the voiced consonants: B, D, G, J, L, M, N, Ng, R, Sz, ThÃ (as in the word then), V, W, Y, and Z. But if consonants are only single letters, what are Ng, Sz, and Th? Theyre common sounds that are produced by blending the two consonants phonetically. Here are some examples of words that include voiced consonants: traveledglovesshellsstartedchangedwheelsliveddreamsexchangedglobesphoneslistenedorganized Voiceless Consonants Voiceless consonants do not use the vocal cords to produce their hard, percussive sounds. Instead, theyre slack, allowing air to flow freely from the lungs to the mouth, where the tongue, teeth, and lips engage to modulate the sound. These are the voiceless consonants: Ch, F, K, P, S, Sh, T, and ThÃ (as in thing). Common words using them include: washedcoatswatchedbooksseatsdroppedcarts Vowels Vowel sounds (A, E, I, O, U) and diphthongsÃ (combinations of two vowel sounds) are all voiced. That also includes the letter Y when pronounced like a long E. Examples: city, pity, gritty. Changing Voice When consonants are put in groups, they can change the vocal quality of the consonant that follows. A great example is the past simple form of regular verbs. You can recognize these verbs because they end in ed. However, the consonant sound of this ending can change from voiced to voiceless, depending on the consonant or vowel that precedes it. In almost all cases, the E is silent. Here are the rules: If the ed is preceded by a voiceless consonant such as K, it should be pronounced as a voiceless T. Examples: parked, barked, markedIf the ed is preceded by a voiced consonant sound such as B or V, it should be pronounced as a voiced D. Examples: robbed, thrived, shovedIf the ed is preceded by a vowel sound, it should be pronounced as a voiced DÃ because vowels are always voiced. Examples: freed, fried, liedException: If the ed is preceded by T, it should be pronounced a voiced id sound. In this case, the e is pronounced. Examples: dotted, rotted, plotted This pattern can also be found with plural forms. If the consonant preceding the S is voiced, the S will be pronounced phonetically as a Z. Examples: chairs, machines, bags If the consonant preceding the S is voiceless, then the S also will be pronounced as a voiceless consonant. Examples: bats, parks, pipes. Connected Speech When speaking in sentences, the ending consonant sounds can change based on the following words. This is often referred to as connected speech. Here is an example of a change from a voiced B in the word club to a voiceless P because of the voiced T in to of the following word: We went to the club to meet some friends. Here is an example of a change from a voiced D past simple verb changed to voiceless T: We played tennis yesterday afternoon.
Posted by Unknown at 8:15 AM
Friday, November 22, 2019
HIV Uses Trojan Horse Method to Infect Cells Like all viruses, HIV is not able to reproduce or express its genes without the help of a living cell. First, the virus must be able to successfully infect a cell. To do so, HIV uses a veil of human proteins in a Trojan horse manner to infect immune cells. To go from cell to cell, HIV is packaged in an envelope or capsid made from viral proteins and proteins from human cell membranes. Like the Ebola virus, HIV relies on proteins from human cell membranes to gain entrance into a cell. In fact, Johns Hopkins scientists have identified 25 human proteins that have been incorporated into the HIV-1 virus and aid its ability to infect other body cells. Once inside a cell, HIV uses the cells ribosomes and other components to make viral proteins and to replicate. When new virus particles are formed, they emerge from the infected cell cloaked in a membrane and proteins from the infected cell. This helps the virus particles avoid immune system detection. What Is HIV? HIV is the virus that causes the disease known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. HIV destroys cells of the immune system, making an individual infected with the virus less equipped to fight off infection. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), this virus may be transmitted when infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions come in contact with an uninfected persons broken skin or mucous membranes. There are two types of HIV, HIV-1, and HIV-2. HIV-1 infections have mostly occurred in the United States and Europe, while HIV-2 infections are more prominent in West Africa. How HIV Destroys Immune Cells While HIV may infect different cells throughout the body, it attacks white blood cells called T cell lymphocytes and macrophages in particular. HIV destroys T cells by triggering a signal that results in T cell death. When HIV replicates within a cell, viral genes get inserted into the genes of the host cell. Once HIV integrates its genes into T cell DNA, an enzyme (DNA-PK) uncharacteristically sets off a sequence that leads to the death of the T cell. The virus thereby destroys the cells that play a major role in the bodys defense against infectious agents. Unlike T cell infection, HIV infection of macrophages is less likely to lead to macrophage cell death. As a result, infected macrophages produce HIV particles for a longer period of time. Since macrophages are found in every organ system, they can transport the virus to various sites in the body. HIV-infected macrophages may also destroy T cells by releasing toxins that cause nearby T cells to undergo apoptosis or programmed cell death. Engineering HIV-Resistant Cells Scientists are attempting to develop new methods for fighting HIV and AIDS. Stanford University School of Medicine researchers has genetically engineered T cells to be resistant to HIV infection. They accomplished this by inserting HIV-resistant genes into the T-cell genome. These genes successfully blocked the entry of the virus into the altered T cells. According to researcher Matthew Porteus, We inactivated one of the receptors that HIV uses to gain entry and added new genes to protect against HIV, so we have multiple layers of protection what we call stacking. We can use this strategy to make cells that are resistant to both major types of HIV. If it is shown that this approach to treating HIV infection could be used as a new type of gene therapy, this method could potentially replace current drug therapy treatment. This type of gene therapy would not cure HIV infectionÃ but would provide a source of resistant T cells that could stabilize the immune system and prevent the deve lopment of AIDS. Sources: NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Scientists discover how HIV kills immune cells; Findings have implications for HIV treatment. ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 5 June 2013. (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130605144435.htm).Herbein G. and Kumar A. The macrophage: a therapeutic target in HIV-1 infection. Molecular and Cellular Therapies. Published 2 April 2014. (molcelltherapies.com/content/2/1/10).Stanford University Medical Center. Immune cells engineered in lab to resist HIV infection, study shows. ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 January 2013. (sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130122101903.htm).
Posted by Unknown at 3:38 PM
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Explain why liberal economic theory, policy and institutions are so dominant today. Is this good for business and for society - Essay Example In addition to this, it has been slowly been assimilated by other states that have seen the need to adopt to it while others have been dictated to adopt the idea. For instance, the third world countries which depend mostly on financial assistance from the West have been forced to strictly follow this policy through the World Bank or even the IMF. Despite the policy having competition from states that prefer socialism to capitalism, it has continued to dominate the business world especially after the collapse of the socialism era (Barry 1993). How the policies of liberal business have managed to dominate in business up-to-date For many years, the liberal form of economy has been dominating the business world. Furthermore, updating of the classical liberal economy to the now neo liberalism has contributed numerous terms of dominating the business empire. For instance, it has played a vital role in the economic policy making in US and the UK, dominated economic policymaking in the US an d the UK. Although the theory has faced numerous oppositions in the business world, it has continued to dominate some parts of the world in its own way. A good example is the third world countries have been forced to adopt the liberal policies through organizations like the IMF and the World Bank (Jason 2005). There was a comeback in the old religion of classical liberalism, through academic economics, and then in the real field of public policy. The neo-liberalism has been clearly viewed as an economic theory, as well as, a platform of policy making. Due to its capitalism nature, the market is free for individual choices that are able to meet the ultimate goals of economic success together with its distributional procedures (Barry 1993). In most cases, the state has very little command in terms of property rights, law enforcement, and limiting the amount of profit an individual or company has made. For this reason, a state cannot act as a mediator because of mistrust amongst the bu siness partners. The policy on liberal economic theory is mainly based on the regulation of welfare state whereby, there is privatization of public assets, tax regulation, and business regulation. Additionally, this it has embraced the investing class too. Internationally, liberalism encourages liberated transit of goods and services across the borders globally (Andrew 2008). The policy has been a success by ensuring that different corporations, individual investors, as well as, the banks are free to transact any form of business without being limited by the boundaries of a state despite such action being not part of the liberalism policy. In 1970s, economist viewed the liberal theory as just a temporal solution towards the economic in stability at that time. This is because the key Asian regulationsÃ¢â¬â¢ policies never solved their solutions at that particular moment. The only possible solution was to shift their attention to the liberal policies, which was their only way out to counter the obstacles that hindered them from making any substantial profit (Andrew 2008). However, the policy proved to be adoptive on a more permanent basis rather than being a temporal solution. Such policies have made it possible for the likes of politicians such as Margret Thatcher of the UK and her US counterpart Ronald Reagan to be on the map of success under their partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ administration in 1990s hence solidifying its dominating ground in the economic world (Sawyer and
Posted by Unknown at 12:45 AM
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Technical communication - Essay Example Therefore, the statement about the ease of operation should be changed, along with the drawing, so that the two agree in the assumption of this reasonable Ã¢â¬Å"fitness for a particular purposeÃ¢â¬ (Product, 2009). Ethical Case: In this case, the DMX-450Ã ® is advertised as a product that Ã¢â¬Å"makes downloading large email files almost instant. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll no longer have to wait for large file scans.Ã¢â¬ The ethical breach that has occurred here is that the content violates the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s assumptions of fact based and rational explanation of the product. Instead, the DMX is being advertised as operating at a speed that is impossible, or approaching impossible; it is not an objective or fact-based description of what the software is capable of (such as a specific baud rate or downloading speed). I would tell the co-worker that s/he should trust their consumer more, and stop trying to talk down to them with lofty exaggerations; I would advise them to simply tell the consumer about the product, rather than boasting, to make a better ethical impression. This way, the consumer will feel more secure and trusting about the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s
Posted by Unknown at 7:50 AM
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Eco-friendly and formaldehyde-free Essay Dont have the budget for solid-wood kitchen cabinets, but still want to avoid VOC emissions? Youre in luck. In recognition of the new school year, heres a pop quiz: What do mussels those delectable morsels from the sea best served in a white wine sauce and plywood have in common? Cant see the connection? Read on! Unless you, like some mussels, have been living under a rock, you will be aware of the growing hullabaloo about VOCs (volatile organic compounds) and how we dont want to be breathing them in. The bad news is, if youve had non-solid wood kitchen cabinets installed recently or purchased furniture made of composite wood products, you may be doing just that. But theres also good news. Governments and manufacturers have heard the ruckus about VOCs and taken action and, just when you thought you had all the possible options for kitchen cabinet materials nailed, out they come with new ones to confuse everyone. Hence this primer to bring you up to speed and make sense of it all. It used to be that consumers had two extremes to choose from when they shopped for kitchen cabinets. The lower-cost options were cabinet components made of either particleboard, medium-density fibreboard (MDF) or plywood. These are all composite wood-panel products traditionally containing glues that, when they come to room temperature, emit VOCs in the form of potentially carcinogenic urea formaldehyde (UF). At the other end of the price extreme was solid wood, which doesnt have this problem but costs more. Many contractors still tell clients that their choices are either/or, and urge them to go for the higher-priced wood for various reasons. Luckily for consumers who dont have the budget for a solid-wood kitchen but who want to avoid VOC emissions, this all changed about three years ago, says David Beattie of Rayette Forest Products, based in Concord, Ont. That was when Oregon-based Columbia Forest Products introduced PureBond, which Mr. Beattie describes as a veneer core hardwood plywood made with glue containing zero UF. This plywood, whose layers are joined by a soy flour-based glue, is one of a growing number of alternatives to products in which UF-emitting glues are used. It was introduced by Columbia ahead of new industry standards in the United States the toughest there to date set by the California Air Resources Board (CARB). The story behind PureBond and this is where the mussels come in is rather romantic, although romance isnt something youd normally associate with plywo od either. It seems that an Oregon State University researcher was vacationing along the Pacific Ocean. While sitting on the beach watching the waves pound the shoreline, he noticed clumps of mussels clinging to the rocks. No amount of battering surf could dislodge them. What are they secreting, he wondered, that allows them to adhere to the rocks so solidly? In short, research into those secretions led to the soybean-based, zero-UF glue used in PureBond plywood. Columbia Forest Products says using PureBond is cost-neutral when compared with its former UF-emitting panel products. Thats despite the large expenditures the company says it has made to develop the product. This is an important development, romantic beginnings aside, because, according to CARB findings, The most significant source of (UF) emissions we face on a daily basis comes from the composite woods in our furnishings and cabinetry. At this stage, the glues that work in zero-UF plywood arent being used for particleboard or MDF. Some sources say these adhesives simply dont work with those materials, which have different natures than plywood. But there is something called no added UF particleboard, as well as a kind of MDF whose emissions are in the acceptable range. Look for a particleboard called SkyBlend developed by Oregon-based Roseburg Forest Products and made with recycled and sustainable raw materials, and Arreis MDF, made by SierraPine, which is based in California. Both SkyBlend and Arreis are considered green building products that meet North American VOC-emissions standards. They, and PureBond, are readily available in Canada. With this kind of progress in the wood-products industry, Rayettes Mr. Beattie predicts it wont be long before all composite wood materials are formaldehyde free. If youre in the market for new kitchen cabinetry and your budget wont cover solid wood models, discuss your material options with your contractor. Its important to ensure that hes up to speed on the latest technology and knows what your preferences are. Most general contractors have preferred cabinet suppliers. Find out if those suppliers offer a zero or low UF-emitting panel product. If your contractor still thinks there are only the two extremes to choose from, tell him about the mussels. I know that not everyone is up in arms about UF emissions. Even if you arent, however, I still urge you to find out where your contractors cabinet supplier buys his composite wood products. If theyre coming from certain Third World countries, you could be getting third-rate quality along with those high UF levels. Some contractors will go the foreign route because its cheaper even though those materials often dont meet our more stringent Canadian and North American standards. Canadian materials can cost more than those made in Third World countries. For example, in an average-sized kitchen, using Canadian-produced panel materials is about $500 more expensive than if you went with the Third World products. Still, its not that big of a premium when you consider the benefits of buying Canadian: zero to low UF emissions, and the fact that youre supporting our economy, our workers and our renewable forestry practices. Im not even going to get into the whole human rights thing. As a friend of mine says, when it comes to buying Canadian and going as green as we can, Its all good.
Posted by Unknown at 8:21 PM
Thursday, November 14, 2019
GEC ENGLISH CURRICULUM GUIDE & LESSON PLANS How to Use this Curriculum Guide This series of lessons and resources builds upon the Uganda English Language Curriculum of lower and upper primary Uganda syllabi. It offers students an opportunity to use critical thinking and challenges them to become more fluent in English. Emphasis and practice is centered on the receptive and productive skills of Listening, Writing, Reading and Speaking. In each lesson, students will practice the four skills for English fluency - Speaking (S), Writing (W), Reading (R) and Listening (L).Depending on individual learning needs of girls, each day, learning facilitators may concentrate on a different fluency rather than giving nearly equal time to each fluency. Where necessary, all skills can be given equal time. Learning activities should also be enhanced to be more difficulty or reduced for beginners. In addition, learning facilitators will see Ã¢â¬Å"facilitatorÃ¢â¬â¢s choiceÃ¢â¬ in some categories in the overview. This means the facilitator can assign homework or out of cl ass activities to address a given fluency or they can add an activity during class time that addresses the desired fluency. The facilitator is given flexibility based on the needs of the class. Resources needed for each lesson included in the folders for each week. The units integrate a variety of topics and current events so students are using English in contexts that apply to them. The lessons also address multiple learning styles to appeal to and engage a variety of learners. For reference purposes and more practice for the learners, English language set books 1-3 should be utilized. Individual learning is integral to the lessons in this unit and every learner in the CLC is expect... ...s with your co-teachers as they accomplish the tasks. 5. Assign practice and extension activities to learners from worksheets and practical English Ogundipe text. Homework: FacilitatorÃ¢â¬â¢s choice. WEEK 5 Lesson objectives By the end of the week students should be able to; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Apply words of quantity in their compositions and discussions. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Use the different types of sentences in their writing. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identify and apply a variety of punctuation in their work. Teacher Prep: Be familiar with words of quantity and more punctuation marks. Materials: Ã¯â § Notes & Worksheets on words of quantity. Ã¯â § Practical English Ogundipe Bks 1-3 Ã¯â § White board and markers. Ã¯â § English language dictionaries. Procedures: 1 Begin this lesson by asking students to complete a writing task. Select according to studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ levels and abilities from the folder ELS Lower Secondary multiple tasks. 2 Ã¢â¬Æ'
Posted by Unknown at 8:52 AM
Monday, November 11, 2019
As I am currently the president and CEO of J-R Equipment, my career is where I always thought it would be. I was chosen by my mother to head this 50 year-old family business. My sole endeavor is to have it continue for another 50 years. More specifically, over the next five years my goal and base objective will be to rebuild J-R Equipment Rental into an efficient, consistently profitable organization which many families are supported with its growth. Heinz Weihrich (2007) writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Career plans are built on uncertainty; the future cannot be predicted with accuracy. Consequently, contingency plans based on alternative sets of assumptions should be prepared.Ã¢â¬ My personal plan will be an ongoing proactive plan with annual reassessments periodically (Wagner, 2010). My objective is to incorporate new technology and old fashioned know how to make ours the best rental company in the area. Goals and Objectives J-R Equipment will remain in our family for generations to come with proper management and development. The initial objective in any business is to be profitable. Years ago this company was run by a much larger staff, thus giving the opportunity of time to oversee things properly. This is my personal goal. When this plan is successfully put into practice, a sense of pride and accomplishment knowing that my mother made the correct choice will be satisfaction enough. I do not foresee my compensation or benefits package changing during or after this time. The following current specific goals and objectives are vital to the plan to be a success. This list cannot consider unknown or unforeseen actions. 1. Conduct a complete job analysis on each area within the company. 2. Construct a thorough job description for each job analysis. 3. Work to organize the jobs better to be done so that employees are making good use of their talents to better serve the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. 4. Review pay scales and update if warranted, this should be done annually. 5. Review benefits package, e.g. Health Insurance, IRA, Life Insurance 6. Annually update the Employee Handbook and new hire package. 7. Streamline the rental process so that customers can shorten the time they are required to spend in the office on paperwork. 8. Educate employees who will utilize the computer systemÃ¢â¬â¢s available tools. 9. Work to make the equipment inventory more reliable in terms of contracts and status of equipment. 10. Update processes and protocols within the company. 11. Review our service call procedures and update as needed. Job Satisfaction and Attributes There is a great deal of satisfaction in a job well-done. Knowing that my efforts are useful and usable is more than adequate to me. The typical attributes of job satisfaction is motivation and productivity. When an employee is satisfied with his or her job the employee will almost naturally be excited and motivated, thus increasing productivity. I am no exception to this rule. Compensation and Benefits Currently my compensation and benefits are as high as they can be for the company. In the near future I plan to include a key individual life insurance plan to my list of benefits. This life insurance plan would pay the company as the beneficiary to offset costs pertaining to hiring and promoting individuals in the event of my death. Most organizations have at least one employee who is fundamental to the continued success of the business. It could be the owner, manager, or someone with a high level of experience, the loss or death of that person certainly would cause an upset both productively and financially to the company. This insurance benefit could be used to pay off debt, recruit new personnel, or any other useful tool needed to grow the business. Competencies For any business today and subsequently its managers to remain competitive, certain technologies must be utilized so that employees, management, and customers can communicate and conduct business in a simple yet proficient manner. Our computer system was upgraded just last year so I would believe that this system could easily carry us through this plan with regular updates. There are add-ons to the system that could be better utilized. In addition, certain competencies are required to fulfill the position of president and CEO in an effective manner. Competence defined is a gathering of functionality, involving skills, knowledge, and personal attributes, which, combined, establish successful achievement of activity (AdomaitienÃâ", ZubrickienÃâ", 2010). Adomaitiene and Zubrickiene also write that competencies and job experiences become a condition of personal clarity. The following competencies are required to grow as a manager/owner and thus have the company grow as well. An effective CEO must have the ability to understand, empathize, and assist in each area or department within the company to recognize its connection to other departments. I. Every employee has a role to play in the efficient function of the company, the awareness of each person and their role is a key component in success. II. A working knowledge of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s front office or rental software and its capabilities are vital to daily operations. III. A working knowledge of the back office systems and their functionality will prove essential for financial recommendations. Job Experiences Fortunately, my current experience level with each department is such that I feel as though I am a step ahead already in my plan. These experiences allow me the confidence to discuss any changes that may be initiated to improve the company. Continued access to the departments and their functions will help to keep my competencies up to date. Training and Education Training and education are an indispensable part of any planÃ¢â¬â¢s success. The educational background I have will be sufficient to begin this process; however the complete plan will require additional education and a personal in-depth assessment of my own personal strengths, weaknesses, and a thorough knowledge of what items will need adjustment are the first necessary step. My education with University of Phoenix and continued work experience help to complete my understanding of the business process and the functionality of this knowledge. J-R EquipmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Role J-R EquipmentÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility is simply to comply with the recommendations made. The department managers will prove essential in the process. Open forms of communication are crucial to the success of our plan and subsequently our company. Regular meetings will be held to mark the successful procession of the plan. Plan Timeline Year One:1.All job analyses and descriptions are complete. 2.Begin working with other managers to formulate ideas for streamlining. 3.Set schedules for employee training on the computer system. 4.Update Employee Handbook. 5.Begin inventory analysis with equipment not available for rental. Year Two:1.Reorganize employees to better suit their skills and talents. 2.Review pay scales of all employees to make certain current state legislation is upheld. 3.Begin review of benefits packages. 4.Continue gathering ideas for streamlining. 5.Revise/implement training schedules. 6.Update Employee Handbook. 7.Continue inventory analysis with spot check inventory reconciliation. Year Three:1.Complete review of benefits packages. 2.Update Employee Handbook and new hire package. 3.Continue inventory analysis. 4.Begin to put into effect ideas for streamlining the rental process. 5.Review pay scales of all employees Year Four:1.Update/review streamlining processes. 2.Update Employee Handbook and new hire package 3.Continue ongoing inventory analysis. 4.Review pay scales Year Five:1.All processes should be completed 2.Review new processes for functionality 3.Review needs for additional training. 4.Review pay scales and benefits packages 5.Update Employee handbook. 6.Formulate a Mentoring Program Mentoring A mentoring program can be formal or informal. The informal plans offer much more than the formal plans. Informal programs are more driven simply because both parties are motivated, and the relationship would be more relaxed and without boundaries (Chao, 2009). Formal programs are certainly more rigid, more structured, and more visible. Currently there is no formatted mentoring program in place even though I was mentored without even knowing it. I do however intend to formulate a program by the end of the five year period. This is largely dependent on employee and family growth within the business. There are several candidates currently that will be given the opportunity for experiential growth to a higher level of responsibility. The program itself will need to address the ever-changing working world and its part in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life (Patton, McIlveen, 2008). Conclusion A career development plan has been difficult to prepare. My career has almost always been J-R Equipment. I have been raised here and groomed for this business and am thankful for that education. I and my siblings were raised in this business, my children were raised in this business, and now my grandchildren are being raised here. I could not be more proud or motivated for our continued success. References AdomaitienÃâ", J., & ZubrickienÃâ", I. (2010). Career Competences and Importance of Their Development in Planning of Career Perspective. Bridges / Tiltai, 53(4), 87-99. Chao, G. T. (2009). Formal mentoring: Lessons learned from past practice. Professional Psychology: Research And Practice, 40(3), 314-320. doi:10.1037/a0012658 Morgan, M. (2011). Building Personal Equity. Strategic Finance, 93(6), 16-61. Patton, W. (2009). Practice and Research in Career Counseling and DevelopmentÃ¢â¬â 2008. Career Development Quarterly, 58(2), 118. The Value of Key-Person Life Insurance. Retrieved from
Posted by Unknown at 9:24 PM
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Explains the boundaries between the teaching role and other professioinal roles and own responsibilities in relation to other professionals. (2. 1 & 2. 2) Within this assignment i will explain what i believe the roles and responsibilities of a teacher and possible boundaries which i may come up against. Where possible I will link it to my own personal experiencesand knowledge. I will attempt to describe teaching roles both related and non related as much as i can, i will also make references to the 6 areas contained within the professional standards for teachers tutors and trainers in the life long learning ector and also to the teaching and learning cycle. I believe further education teaching can be split into two sections,a teachers role and the teacher related roles. From my experience teaching roles will be taken on by assessors and Tutors where as the teacher related roles will mainly be handled by administration staff, and senior management. A teachers role can be referred to a s Ã¢â¬Å"a role which contains limitied teaching responsibilities and a role which represents the full range of responsibilities performed by those who are expected to attain the status of a qualified teacherÃ¢â¬ In my opinion the esponsibility of a teacher/tutor isto nurture any person from someone who knows nothing about the trade and turning them into someone who has both the practicaland theoretical skills to be a bricklayer with a National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) level 3 atthe end of their apprenticeship. But the responsibility of staff who occupy the teacher related role will be taking care of things like filing,ensuring paperwork is upto date and correct thus complying with the data protection act 1998,and making sure there are no complications with regards toplacements/funding for learners.Entry Requirements a teacher/trainer will be required to work a range of information sources Therefore,during the selection process you may be required to undertake an initial as sessment in Numeracy and an initial assessment in Literacy. To be accepted onto an Apprenticeship programme at level 2 you will have to achieve Numeracy Level 1, and Literacy Level 1 to start with. You will also be required to attend an interview, during which your suitability,commitment and interest will be determined. You should bring with you to theinterview any evidence you have of previous academic achievement.You may also wish to present other documentation that supports your application This can include evidence of other activities that you have participated in, sports, hobbies, work experience etc. To me different levels your learners may be at and you can hopefully you can then get a better idea as to what stage you should start your teachings from, These assessments should be continuous throughout the apprenticeship so you can check that learners are progressing in the areas thatthey should be. If not the correct measures can then be put into place to help them catch up wi th others I understand that every eacher/tutor has contractual obligations to abide by in regards to what ever the programme they are teaching, these will be a guideline from your employer but also you have a rather strict code to work to from awarding body such as Constructive Awards Alliance (CAA) or City and Guilds (C&G). Every tutor/teacher will have the same contractual obligations to abide with these but they may vary with your employer as everyone likes to put there own mark on apprenticeshipsThe teacher related roles are to include things like checking all documentation and information on students is orrect and upto date,ensuring students are registered with the correct learning bodies so there are no complications when starting/ completing apprenticeships. Providing statistics/schedules of a learners attendance, achievements,and time keeping. in my opinion many of the teacher/tutor related roles can be under took by either the teacher/tutor or admin staff as there is not a set rule book as to who can do what. Further to this there is the contractual obligation of completing regular assessments and reviews with both learner and employer as it is imperitive the employer knows what stage alearner is at.I shall now try toexplain the roles and responsibilities by reading and extracting information from page 73 /74 of the work booklet. I believe the key purpose of being a teacheris to be able to create a safe, fun yet hard working environment to give all students the oppertunity to excel in there individual learning programme 1)Ã¢â¬Å" Professional values and practiceÃ¢â¬ this explains the values which teachers in the lifelong learning sector should meet or exceed in to achieve their responsibility to me the following value shows how a teacher has the responsibility to ensure all earners are learning as a whole thus ensuring all are learning at the same pace knowing all they need to know to succeed. 2)Ã¢â¬Å"learning and teachingÃ¢â¬ to me there are s o many different responsibilities with regards to learning and teaching forexample progression, development, goals and aspirations of all which will endeavour to enhance the experiences they bring to learning. 3) Ã¢â¬Å"specialist learning and teachingÃ¢â¬ when completing an Apprenticeship a strict framework is to be adhered to, we as teachers must ensure all aspects of the framework are to be covered and to chieve this I believe I must ensure I am upto date with the current teachings in my trade in order to be current and thus making up part of my continous planned development 4) Ã¢â¬Å"planning for learningÃ¢â¬ which to me is an imperitive part of teaching which in my profession is very important as one wrong learning or misunderstanding can lead to serious harm or even death but I understand that these teachings may require special attention to detail and covering equality and diversity effectively 5) Ã¢â¬Å"assessment for learningÃ¢â¬ I believe you must be willing to ca rry out consecutive assessments so as o see where learners are and where they should/ could be in future months thus ensuring everyone within the organisation can see the progress of students 6) Ã¢â¬Å" access and progressionÃ¢â¬ this to me says we must have sufficient information and advice/ guidance to support a learners needs and also make learners aware of various in house services which may be available to them summarising: I believe there are many factors which lead to being a successful teacher, you need to be a very broad minded and self sufficient person, who needs to be patient and understanding to hatever task/obstacle is put in front of them you need to be aware of constantly changing rules, regulations and criteria surrounding your specialist subject. You need to be honest, have a positive mental attitude and have very high expectations of your learners,but also need to be aware that there are going to be students who need the extra help and support from you to compl ete the course. I need to be able to provide easy yet still challenging lesson plans. As a good teacher I need to make myself very approachable to all who require my attention, this will include learners, ther tutors,office staff and management but also internal and external verifiers. I was always treated with the utmost respect whilst completing my apprenticeship and my tutors were always honest with me, sometimes honest but that gave me reason to believe in what I was doing and made me want to further my skills even more so to impress my tutor but also gain my qualification at the end of my apprenticeship. I understand there may be certain aspects of the courses IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to teach which I am going to have to re-teach myself so students will grasp things first time and iÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to elive my days as a student to gain all the pros and cons from the way I was taught therefore gaining an understanding of how to make my lessons as effective as they can be. I believe the r ole of teaching requires my personality and character to be the vehicle of knowledge. I know things will be hard and at sometimes baffling but that is what life is all about, knowing what you want and having the will to reach your goal. I believe there are many factors with regards to striving towards being a successful Teacher in my profession but I believe I have everything it takes to succeed.
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